A fire door is a type of door or movable barrier used as part of a passive fire protection system within buildings to prevent the spread of fire or smoke between separate sections. It is usually the only means of allowing people to pass through a fire-resistant wall.
Fire doors are designed to withstand fire, heat and smoke for a period of 20-minutes to 3 hours.
Fire Doors are required to:-Be Self Closing: fire doors should have a door closure that pulls doors completely shut after the door has been opened-Have Positive latching: a positive latch locks a door in place so it can swing open.
Fire-rated doors – Importance
- Passive fire protection system
- Provides an effective barrier for the passage of fire and/or smoke
- Provide safe egress and increase protection for first responders
- Also serves for safety, security, accessibility, control, privacy & isolation
- Can also serve as environmental weather seal for heat, cold, moisture, dust and debris
Fire-rated doors – Codes and Standards
Fire Doors are governed by the building code and NFPA throughout design, specification, installation and occupancy permitting. Once a Certificate of Occupancy has been issued, the building code is closed. The International Fire Code or Life Safety Code is now in effect for the operation and maintenance of the facility.
- NFPA 80, Standard for Fire Doors and Other Opening Protectives
- NFPA 101, Life Safety Code (2009 Edition)
- NFPA 105, Standard for the Installation of Smoke-Control Door Assemblies and Other Opening Protective’s (2007 edition)
- NFPA 251, Standard Methods of Tests for Fire Resistance of Building Construction and Materials (2006 edition)
- NFPA 252, Standard for the Installation of Smoke-Control Door Assemblies (2007 edition) ULC S104
- UL 10B, Fire Tests of Door Assemblies of various materials and types of construction
- UBC 7-2-97 / UL 10C, Standard for Safety Positive Pressure Fire Tests of Door Assemblies
- ANSI/ICC A117.1 Accessible and Usable Buildings and Facilities (2003 edition)
- Americans with Disabilities Act Accessibility Guidelines (ADAAG) (2005 edition)
Fire Resistance Classifications – Hourly Ratings
- 1/3 hr = 20-Minutes
- 3/4 hr = 45-Minutes (C Label)
- 1 hr = 60-Minutes (B Label)
- 11/2 hr = 90-Minutes (B Label)
- 3 hr =180-Minutes (A Label)
Annual Fire & Egress Door Inspections
- NFPA 80 – 2007 : Annual Fire Door Inspections
- NFPA 101 – 2009 : Annual Egress Door Inspections